The GIMIC simulations:
Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation

The GIMIC project was a campaign of large-scale hydrodynamical simulations of the Lambda-Cold Dark Matter universe, run by the Virgo Consortium.

GIMIC pioneered the use of zoomed initial conditions as a means to enable relatively expensive hydrodynamical simulations to sample a range of cosmic environments similar to that probed by low-redshift galaxy surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). GIMIC demonstrated that the large-scale cosmic environment (physical scales > 1 Mpc) impacts only upon the number density of galaxies; at fixed mass, the properties of galaxies are similar across all large-scale environments, a result presented in the GIMIC reference paper. A second major outcome of this study was the demonstration that simulations can reproduce the observed star formation history of the Universe but nonetheless yield a galaxy population with masses markedly different to those inferred from galaxy luminosity functions, as a consequence of the inaccurate treatment of energetic feedback in certain regimes. The galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), or the stellar mass – halo mass relation in zoom simulations, has since become a litmus test for the `realism’ of simulations (see e.g. Bower, Benson & Crain 2012; Scannapieco et al. 2012).
GIMIC followed regions embedded in the Millennium Simulation (R. Crain / J. Geach)

GIMIC nevertheless reproduced the observed number density of galaxies comparable in mass to the Milky Way, and proved a valuable resource with which to explore their evolution, focussing on the formation of their stellar discs and haloes, their hot circumgalactic medium, and their satellite galaxies. GIMIC has also been used extensively to explore the impact of cosmic environment on galaxy evolution.

For a guaranteed list of up-to-date GIMIC publications, it’s best to check with NASA’s ADS, but I provide here an attempt to keep up to date with the reference, methods and analysis publications. Papers of which I am a coauthor are also served from the open access LJMU Research Online repository.

Reference paper:

Galaxies-intergalactic medium interaction calculation - I. Galaxy formation as a function of large-scale environmentCrain et al. (2009)ADS

Methods papers

Gravity solverThe cosmological simulation code GADGET-2Springel (2005)ADS
Radiative cooling The effect of photoionization on the cooling rates of enriched, astrophysical plasmasWiersma, Schaye & Smith. (2009)ADS
ISM dynamics & star formationOn the relation between the Schmidt and Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation laws and its implications for numerical simulationsSchaye & Dalla Vecchia (2008)ADS
Chemical enrichmentChemical enrichment in cosmological, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulationsWiersma et al. (2009)ADS
Stellar feedbackSimulating galactic outflows with kinetic supernova feedbackDalla Vecchia & Schaye (2008)ADS

 Analysis papers

X-ray coronae in simulations of disc galaxy formation
Crain et al. (2010)ADS
Mismatch and misalignment: dark haloes and satellites of disc galaxies
Deason et al. (2011)ADS
Cosmological simulations of the formation of the stellar haloes around disc galaxies
Font et al. (2011)ADS
Properties of fossil groups in cosmological simulations and galaxy formation models
Cui et al. (2011)ADS
Global structure and kinematics of stellar haloes in cosmological hydrodynamic simulationsMcCarthy et al. (2012a)ADS
The origin of discs and spheroids in simulated galaxies
Sales et al. (2012)ADS
Large-scale structure in absorption: gas within and around galaxy voids
Tejos et al. (2012)ADS
Rotation rates, sizes and star formation efficiencies of a representative population of simulated disc galaxies
McCarthy et al. (2012b)ADS
Sample variance and Lyman α forest transmission statistics
Rollinde et al. (2013)ADS
The abundance of (not just) dark matter haloes
Sawala et al. (2013)ADS
Enriching the hot circumgalactic medium
Crain et al. (2013)ADS
The environmental dependence of neutral hydrogen in the GIMIC simulations
Cunnama et al. (2014)ADS
Chandra survey of nearby highly inclined disc galaxies - III. Comparison with hydrodynamical simulations of circumgalactic coronaeLi, Crain & Wang (2014)ADS
The Very Large Telescope Lyman-Break Galaxy Redshift Survey - IV. Gas and galaxies at z ˜ 3 in observations and simulations
Tummuangpak et al. (2014)ADS
Galaxy properties and the cosmic web in simulationsMetuki et al. (2015)ADS
Star formation quenching in simulated group and cluster galaxies: when, how, and why?Bahe and McCarthy (2015)ADS